Biological Process Engineering

Exam questions for academic year 2017/18

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  1. Basics of biology of microorganisms. Requirements of microorganisms on physical and chemical properties of the environment. Morphology of cells. Taxonomy of microorganisms. Procaryotic and eucaryotic microorganisms. Viruses. Structure and basic characteristics of cells and their inner arrangement.
  2. Composition of cellular mass. Proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, lipids, and other components. Their biological functions. Micro and macro-nutrients. Growth media.
  3. Enzymes: their structure and nature of enzyme function. Classification of enzymes. Basics of enzyme kinetics. Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Assumptions for validity of enzyme kinetic expressions.
  4. Determination of values of kinetic parameters by regression. More complex models of enzyme kinetics (allosteric enzymes, inhibition).
  5. Effects of pH and temperature on enzyme reactions. Inactivation of enzymes.
  6. Enzyme immobilization: basic methods and techniques. Effects of microenvironment on enzyme reactions with immobilized enzymes. Transport processes in systems with immobilized enzymes – mass transfer to surface of nonporous support of an immobilized enzyme, Damköhler number, external effectiveness factor. Effects of internal diffusion in a  porous support, internal effectiveness factor, Thiele module.
  7. Growth of microbial cells, specific growth rate, determination of concentration of cells in medium. Growth in batch systems. Phases of the growth curve. Stoichiometric parameters of cellular growth.
  8. Effect of cultivation conditions (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration) on kinetics of growth of  microorganisms. Heat production during growth of microorganisms. Structured and segregated models of growth.
  9. Enthalpy balance and determination of metabolic heat in a cooled bioreactor.
  10. Dependence of growth rate on concentration of a limiting substrate, Monod kinetics and other models. Effect of inhibitors on  the growth rate. Biomass growth  in batch systems with Monod kinetics. Logistic equation.
  11. Growth of microorganisms in continual cultures. Chemostat a turbidostat. Description of chemostat without effects of endogenous  metabolism and without  product formation. Discussion of optimal dilution rate using graph (qualitative only).
  12. Growth of microorganisms in continual cultures - description of chemostat with effect of endogenous metabolism and with product formation.
  13. Operating conditions – comparison of simple batch and continual bioreactors. Alternative modes of operation.
  14. Types of industrial bioreactors, aeration, scale up, scale down, sterilization.